Diabetes Self Medication Education

Insulin is the result of DNA recombination used genetically with the word Escchereia Coli. These organisms synthesize each insulin chain to be like the same amino acids as human insulin. It is these chemical bonds that ultimately produce human insulin.

Giving insulin a mixture of short-intermediate-acting or long-acting insulin blood sugar levels is better than one type of insulin. In the administration of insulin, this must be right and correct for insulin in the bottle does not mix with the insulin in the syringe that can be marketed as lysis.

The mixing steps are as follows:
  1. Wash hands
  2. Read the etiquette of the insulin bottle, its type and expiration date
  3. Rotate each insulin bottle gently on the palm of the hand so that the contents of insulin evenly.
  4. Wipe the bottle cap with alcohol.
  5. Injection of 20 air units into insulin NPH. (the amount of water corresponding to the size corresponding to the required unit). Always put injecting into an insulin longer duration of work.
  6. Inject 10 units of air into a regular insulin bottle. The amount of air injected should be the same as the given insulin dose.
  7. Suction 10 units of normal insulin make sure there is no air in the syringe, and always succeed in insulin that has a shorter working period.
  8. Suction 10 units of insulin NPH with syringes that have been equipped with regular insulin 10 unit. Be careful not to have regular insulin injected into the insulin bottle of NPH.
  9. The amount of insulin in a syringe should be 30 units.

If insulin is administered more than is needed for glucose metabolism, hypoglycemia or insulin shock reactions can be overcome by giving intravenous or peroral sugar increasing the use of insulin.


In situations where the amount of insulin is insufficient, the sugar can not be metabolized so fat metabolism occurs, the use of (ketone) fatty acids for energy leads to ketoacidosis.

Each part of the body covered with loose skin can be used as a place of insulin injection including the abdomen, thighs, upper arms, waist and upper outer quadrant of the buttocks. In general, insulin will be faster absorbed from the upper body such as the deltoid and stomach than the thighs and buttocks.

The rotation of the injection continues to inhibit the absorption due to fibrosis or lipohipertropy repeatedly in only one place. The American Diabetes Association recommends insulin to be injected in the same area for one week at a distance of 1 ½ inch (injection of one toe) injection by substitution of insulin or just below the skin layer.

Health education or counseling about insulin administration and treatment of diabetes mellitus patients is a nursing practice that should be given to be an effective home therapeutic regimen and avoid re-hospitalization.

Explanations to be given to clients or parents are:
  1. How to store insulin in the refrigerator/cooler with a temperature of 2-6 degrees Celsius so avoid sun exposure and wait for potential insulin at room temperature, especially if the vial cap is opened.
  2. Insulin doses are obtained and instant insulin injecting time 30 minutes before meals or a certain time interval based on insulin regimen and blood sugar level (preferred dosage).
  3. How to use bottles and injection tools. Tell clients to use NPH or lente together with regular insulin to take regular insulin first before taking insulin NPH or lente.
  4. Explain areas of the body that can be used as a place for insulin absorption and recommend for injection site release to maintain effectively!e absorption and prevent lipodystropy.
  5. Reactions of hypoglycemia more easily occur at the peak time of the drug work. Teach the client to the hypoglycemic workshop by providing candy and sugar.

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